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Two-tier Grading System for NPDR Severities of Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Fundus Images

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 2 ]


Charu Bhardwaj, Shruti Jain and Meenakshi Sood*   Pages 195 - 206 ( 12 )


Background: Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of vision impairment and its early stage diagnosis relies on regular monitoring and timely treatment for anomalies exhibiting subtle distinction among different severity grades. The existing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) detection approaches are subjective, laborious and time consuming which can only be carried out by skilled professionals. All the patents related to DR detection and diagnoses applicable for our research problem were revised by the authors. The major limitation in classification of severities lies in poor discrimination between actual lesions, background noise and other anatomical structures.

Methods: A robust and computationally efficient Two-Tier DR (2TDR) grading system is proposed in this paper to categorize various DR severities (mild, moderate and severe) present in retinal fundus images. In the proposed 2TDR grading system, input fundus image is subjected to background segmentation and the foreground fundus image is used for anomaly identification followed by GLCM feature extraction forming an image feature set. The novelty of our model lies in the exhaustive statistical analysis of extracted feature set to obtain optimal reduced image feature set employed further for classification.

Results: Classification outcomes are obtained for both extracted as well as reduced feature set to validate the significance of statistical analysis in severity classification and grading. For single tier classification stage, the proposed system achieves an overall accuracy of 100% by k- Nearest Neighbour (kNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. In second tier classification stage, an overall accuracy of 95.3% with kNN and 98.0% with ANN is achieved for all stages utilizing optimal reduced feature set.

Conclusion: 2TDR system demonstrates overall improvement in classification performance by 2% and 6% for kNN and ANN respectively after feature set reduction, and also outperforms the accuracy obtained by other state of the art methods when applied to the MESSIDOR dataset. This application oriented work aids in accurate DR classification for effective diagnosis and timely treatment of severe retinal ailment.


Diabetic retinopathy, two-tier DR grading system, reduced Image feature vector, statistical analysis, k- nearest neighbour, artificial neural network.


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, JUIT Waknaghat, Solan, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, JUIT Waknaghat, Solan, Department of CDC, NITTTR, Chandigarh

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