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Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix and Random Forest Based Off-line Odia Handwritten Character Recognition

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 2 ]


Abhisek Sethy*, Prashanta Kumar Patra and Deepak Ranjan Nayak   Pages 136 - 141 ( 6 )


Background: In the past decades, handwritten character recognition has received considerable attention from researchers across the globe because of its wide range of applications in daily life. From the literature, it has been observed that there is limited study on various handwritten Indian scripts and Odia is one of them. We revised some of the patents relating to handwritten character recognition.

Methods: This paper deals with the development of an automatic recognition system for offline handwritten Odia character recognition. In this case, prior to feature extraction from images, preprocessing has been done on the character images. For feature extraction, first the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is computed from all the sub-bands of two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D DWT) and thereafter, feature descriptors such as energy, entropy, correlation, homogeneity, and contrast are calculated from GLCMs which are termed as the primary feature vector. In order to further reduce the feature space and generate more relevant features, principal component analysis (PCA) has been employed. Because of the several salient features of random forest (RF) and K- nearest neighbor (K-NN), they have become a significant choice in pattern classification tasks and therefore, both RF and K-NN are separately applied in this study for segregation of character images.

Results: All the experiments were performed on a system having specification as windows 8, 64-bit operating system, and Intel (R) i7 – 4770 CPU @ 3.40 GHz. Simulations were conducted through Matlab2014a on a standard database named as NIT Rourkela Odia Database.

Conclusion: The proposed system has been validated on a standard database. The simulation results based on 10-fold cross-validation scenario demonstrate that the proposed system earns better accuracy than the existing methods while requiring least number of features. The recognition rate using RF and K-NN classifier is found to be 94.6% and 96.4% respectively.


Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), discrete wavelet transform, random forest, K- nearest neighborhood (KNN), Odia, character recognition.


Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Odisha

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